The methods of recruiting and selecting workers
The process of finding staff is known as recruitment. The recruitment process is:
- Vacancy arises.
- A job analysis is done, which identifies the responsibilities and tasks of the job.
- A job description lists that responsibilities and tasks to the candidates who apply for the position.
- A job specification outlines the required qualifications, expertise and experience a candidate needs to have.
- The job is advertised in the appropriate media, this could be internal or external.
- Candidates fill out application forms, which are short-listed so that only the best candidates remain.
- Interviews are held with remaining candidates, and the ones suitable for the job are selected.
- Vacancy filled.
Internal recruitment: The vacancy can be filled by an employee already in the business. It might be suitable for employees seeking promotion.
Pros of internal recruitment
- Saves time and money.
- The candidates’ reliability, ability and potential are already known.
- The candidates know the expectations and rules of the company.
- Motivates other employees to work harder to get promoted too.
Cons of internal recruitment
- No new ideas or experience come into the business.
- It may create jealousy and rivalry between existing employees.
External recruitment: Most vacancies are filled with external recruitment, which always involves advertising. Media of advertising include:
- Local newspaper: Usually for office and manual workers. These people are plenty since the job does not require too much skill.
- National newspaper: Used to find workers for senior positions that require a lot of skills. It can be read by people in the country or overseas.
- Specialist magazines: Used for particular technical specialists such as physicists. Used to hire people in the home country or abroad.
- Recruitment agencies: Keeps details of qualified people, and will send the suitable applicants to interviews when a business asks for a worker. It is expensive since their fee is based on a percentage of the workers’ pay.
- Government job centres: Place where businesses can advertise their vacancies. These vacancies are usually for unskilled or semi-skilled workers
Pros of external recruitment
- Can attract a stronger selection of candidates
- new ideas can be brought to the company
- can bring newer experience and knowledge which can enhance the image of the firm
Cons of external recruitment
- It can be time consuming and expensive
- the organisation may be at risk for bringing someone who might actually have no experience
- it sometimes demotivates internal staff most especially if they are qualified.
Testing: Applicants may be required to undertake tests to check their ability to do the job.
Type of tests
- Skill test: to observe the candidate’s skills
- Aptitude test: to see how quickly candidate can learn new skills
- Personality test: to see if their personality has the characteristic that the job may require
- Group situation test: to see how candidate(s) works as a team
The importance of training and the methods of training
Why train employees?
- Trained workers are more productive
- decrease the amount supervision required
- may lead to job satisfaction
- reduce accidents and injuries
- improve chances for internal promotion
Induction training – Introduction given to a new employee explaining the company’s activities and procedures and introducing them to other employees.
- Helps new employee settle in
- Health and safety training may be required
- Time consuming (delays the start of employee’s work)
- Wages are paid but no work has been done by the employee
On the job training – Experienced worker teaches new worker how to do the job.
- Training is cheap
- Training is specific for their job
- Work can be done while training
- The trainer will not be getting work done.
- Training won’t be effective if the trainer is bad
Off the job training – Training taking place off the job (not being trained while doing job)
- Trainers are experts (Skills can be taught)
- Training can be done outside of working hours (in employee’s own time)
- Off the job training is expensive
- Worker may receive training paid by business and leave
- Training may not be specific for the job
Why reducing the size of the workforce might be necessary
Why might a business need to reduce the number of employees?
- automation (machines replace humans)
- factory/shop closure
- business relocating
- demand for goods/services falling
- business merging
Dismissal – Employee is told to leave because of bad behavior
Redundancy – Employee told to leave because the business doesn’t need a worker for that job anymore (not employees fault)
How to decide who is made redundant?
- Some workers may volunteer because they might have planned to leave anyways.
- Lenght of time worked (employees who have worked there for a long time can stay)
- Workers with good skills remain
- Worker’s employment history (e.g. behavior / performance of employee)
Legal controls over employment issues and their impact on employers and employees
Most countries have laws to ensure that employees are treated equally
- Business must be careful when advertising job and while selecting applicants to make sure they are all treated fairly/equally (e.g. Gender / race)
Employees need to be protected from
- Unfair discrimination at work and when applying for job
- Wage protection (e.g. minimum wage)
- Health and safety standards
- Unfair dismissal