The methods of recruiting and selecting workers

The process of finding staff is known as recruitment. The recruitment process is:

  1. Vacancy arises.
  2. A job analysis is done, which identifies the responsibilities and tasks of the job.
  3. A job description lists that responsibilities and tasks to the candidates who apply for the position.
  4. A job specification outlines the required qualifications, expertise and experience a candidate needs to have.
  5. The job is advertised in the appropriate media, this could be internal or external.
  6. Candidates fill out application forms, which are short-listed so that only the best candidates remain.
  7. Interviews are held with remaining candidates, and the ones suitable for the job are selected.
  8. Vacancy filled.

Internal recruitment: The vacancy can be filled by an employee already in the business. It might be suitable for employees seeking promotion.

Pros of internal recruitment

  • Saves time and money.
  • The candidates’ reliability, ability and potential are already known.
  • The candidates know the expectations and rules of the company.
  • Motivates other employees to work harder to get promoted too.

Cons of internal recruitment

  • No new ideas or experience come into the business.
  • It may create jealousy and rivalry between existing employees.

External recruitment: Most vacancies are filled with external recruitment, which always involves advertising. Media of advertising include:

  • Local newspaper: Usually for office and manual workers. These people are plenty since the job does not require too much skill.
  • National newspaper: Used to find workers for senior positions that require a lot of skills. It can be read by people in the country or overseas.
  • Specialist magazines: Used for particular technical specialists such as physicists. Used to hire people in the home country or abroad.
  • Recruitment agencies: Keeps details of qualified people, and will send the suitable applicants to interviews when a business asks for a worker. It is expensive since their fee is based on a percentage of the workers’ pay.
  • Government job centres: Place where businesses can advertise their vacancies. These vacancies are usually for unskilled or semi-skilled workers

Pros of external recruitment

  • Can attract a stronger selection of candidates
  • new ideas can be brought to the company
  • can bring newer experience and knowledge which can enhance the image of the firm

Cons of external recruitment

  • It can be time consuming and expensive
  • the organisation may be at risk for bringing someone who might actually have no experience
  • it sometimes demotivates internal staff most especially if they are qualified.

Testing: Applicants may be required to undertake tests to check their ability to do the job.

Type of tests
  1. Skill test: to observe the candidate’s skills
  2. Aptitude test: to see how quickly candidate can learn new skills
  3. Personality test: to see if their personality has the characteristic that the job may require
  4. Group situation test: to see how candidate(s) works as a team

The importance of training and the methods of training

Why train employees?

  • Trained workers are more productive
  • decrease the amount supervision required
  • may lead to job satisfaction
  • reduce accidents and injuries
  • improve chances for internal promotion

Induction training – Introduction given to a new employee explaining the company’s activities and procedures and introducing them to other employees.


  • Helps new employee settle in
  • Health and safety training may be required


  • Time consuming (delays the start of employee’s work)
  • Wages are paid but no work has been done by the employee

On the job training – Experienced worker teaches new worker how to do the job.


  • Training is cheap
  • Training is specific for their job
  • Work can be done while training


  • The trainer will not be getting work done.
  • Training won’t be effective if the trainer is bad

Off the job training – Training taking place off the job (not being trained while doing job)


  • Trainers are experts (Skills can be taught)
  • Training can be done outside of working hours (in employee’s own time)


  • Off the job training is expensive
  • Worker may receive training paid by business and leave
  • Training may not be specific for the job

Why reducing the size of the workforce might be necessary

Why might a business need to reduce the number of employees?

  • automation (machines replace humans)
  • factory/shop closure
  • business relocating
  • demand for goods/services falling
  • business merging

Dismissal – Employee is told to leave because of bad behavior

Redundancy – Employee told to leave because the business doesn’t need a worker for that job anymore (not employees fault)

How to decide who is made redundant?

  • Some workers may volunteer because they might have planned to leave anyways.
  • Lenght of time worked (employees who have worked there for a long time can stay)
  • Workers with good skills remain
  • Worker’s employment history (e.g. behavior / performance of employee)

Legal controls over employment issues and their impact on employers and employees

Most countries have laws to ensure that employees are treated equally

  • Business must be careful when advertising job and while selecting applicants to make sure they are all treated fairly/equally (e.g. Gender / race)

Employees need to be protected from

  • Unfair discrimination at work and when applying for job
  • Wage protection (e.g. minimum wage)
  • Health and safety standards
  • Unfair dismissal